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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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MAGNET – See Periodicals.
MAGNUS, EDUARD – German painter; born at Berlin Jan. 7, 1799; died there Aug. 8, 1872. After studying successively medicine, architecture, and philosophy, he finally adopted the profession of painting, attending the Berlin Academy of Fine Arts....
MAGNUS, HEINRICH GUSTAV – German chemist and physicist; born in Berlin May 2, 1802; died there April 4, 1870. He was graduated from the University of Berlin in 1827, afterward studying a year at Stockholm under Berzelius, and later spending some time in...
MAGNUS, LADY KATIE – English authoress and communal worker; born at Portsmouth May 2, 1844; daughter of E. Emanuel; wife of Sir Philip Magnus. She has been connected with various committees of the Berkeley Street Synagogue, has taken a great...
MAGNUS, LAURIE – English author and publisher; son of Sir Philip Magnus; born in London in 1872; educated at Magdalen College, Oxford. He was the Berlin correspondent of the London "Morning Post" (1897-98) and leader-writer for thesame paper. He...
MAGNUS, LUDWIG IMMANUEL – German mathematician; born in Berlin March 15, 1790; died there Sept. 25, 1861; cousin of Heinrich Gustav Magnus. His father died when he was young; and his mother induced him to enter his uncle's bank; after business hours he...
MAGNUS, MARKUS – Elder of the Jewish congregation of Berlin in the first quarter of the eighteenth century; court Jew to the crown prince, afterward King Frederick William I. The Jewish community of Berlin was divided into two hostile camps by...
MAGNUS, PAUL WILHELM – German botanist; born at Berlin Feb. 29, 1844; educated at the Werdergymnasium and the university of his native city and at the University of Freiburg-im-Breisgau (Ph.D. Berlin, 1870). He became in 1875 privatdocent at his alma...
MAGNUS, SIR PHILIP – English educationist; born in London Oct. 7, 1842; educated at University College in that city, and at the University of London (B.A. 1863; B.Sc. 1864). Destined for the Jewish ministry, he pursued his studies in Berlin...
MAGOG – See Gog and Magog.
MAGREPHAH – See Music.
MAGYAR IZRAELITA – See Periodicals.
MAGYAR ZSIDÓ SZEMLE – Hungarian Jewish monthly review; established in 1884 by Josef Simon, secretary of the Jewish chancery, Wilhelm Bacher, and Josef Bánóczi, the two latter being professors in the "Landesrabbinerschule" of Budapest. Its purpose is...
MAGYAR ZSINAGOGA – See Periodicals.
MAH NISHTANNAH – The opening words of the child's questions to the father in the Passover Haggadah; the whole of the domestic service of the Passover is sometimes, familiarly, so named. The questions are often chanted in the students'...
MAHAMAD – Rules of Election. The board of directors of a Spanish-Portuguese congregation. The word is of Neo-Hebrew origin, and in the Talmud is applied to the representatives of the people present at the Temple service (Ta'an. 15b). The...
MAHANAIM – City on the east of the Jordan, near the River Jabbok; first mentioned as the place where Jacob, returning from Aram to southern Canaan, had a vision of angels (Gen. xxxii. 1-2). This implies that Mahanaim was a sanctuary at a...
MAHER-SHALAL-HASH-BAZ – Symbolic name of the son of Isaiah indicating the sudden attack on Damascus and Syria by the King of Assyria (Isa. viii. 3-4). Isaiah had first been commanded by God to write it on a large roll (ib. viii. 1).E. G. H. M....
MAHLER, ARTHUR – Austrian archeologist; born in Prague Aug. 1, 1871. After completing his studies at the gymnasium in Prague, he studied the history of art and archeology at the universities of Prague and Vienna (Ph.D.), and in 1902 became...
MAHLER, EDUARD – Austrian astronomer; born in Cziffer, Hungary, 1857. He was graduated from the Vienna public school in 1876, and then studied mathematics and physics at the university in that city, taking his degree in 1880. From Nov. 1, 1882,...
MAHLER, GUSTAV – Austrian composer; born at Kalischt, Bohemia, July 7, 1860; studied at the gymnasiums at Iglau and Prague, and entered the University of Vienna in 1877. He attended also the conservatorium in that city, studying pianoforte with...
MAHOMET – See Mohammed.
MAḤOZA – Babylonian city on the Tigris, three parasangs south of Ctesiphon. Near it was the citadel of Koke ( , Χώχη), which was regarded as a part of Maḥoza. Owing to its proximity to the royal canal, Nehar Malka, it was called also...
MÄHRISH-OSTRAU – Town in Moravia, Austria. The congregation of Mährish-Ostrau is one of the youngest in Moravia, for Jews were not allowed to settle there until 1792, and it was not until 1848, when general freedom of residence was granted, that...
MAḤZOR – Term applied to the compilation of prayers and piyyuṭim; originally it designated the astronomical or yearly cycle. By the Sephardim it was used for a collection which contains the prayers for the whole year, while the...