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SHABBETHAI JUDAH ISAAC BEN LEVI – See Judah ibn Shabbethai.
SHABBETHAI B. MEÏR HA-KOHEN (SHaK) – Russian Talmudist; born at Wilna 1621; died at Holleschau on the 1st of Adar (Rishon), 1662. In 1633 he entered the yeshibah of R. Joshua at Tyktizin, studying later at Cracow and Lublin. Returning to Wilna, he married the...
SHABBETHAI BEN MOSES – Halakist and liturgical poet; flourished at Rome in the first half of the eleventh century. Of his halakic decisions only a few fragments are extant. After Solomon ha-Babli he was the first Hebrew poet of Rome; his poems for...
SHABBETHAI BEN MOSES HA-KOHEN – Rabbi of Semeez (Semetch), near Tikoczin, Russia, in the first half of the eighteenth century. He edited "Minḥat Kohen" (Fürth, 1741), a collection of novellæ to the Talmud by Abraham Broda, Ẓebi Ashkenazi, and Jacob Kohen...
SHABBETHAI NAWAWI – Rabbi and scholar of the end of the seventeenth century; lived in Rosetta ( ), Egypt. He was a contemporary of Abraham b. Mordecai ha-Levi, in whose "Ginnat Weradim" some of his responsa are included. Responsa by him are quoted...
SHABBETHAI RAPHAEL – Shabbethaian agitator of the seventeenth century; a native of Morea. About 1667 Shabbethai Raphael was in Italy, where he assiduously preached and propagated the Shabbethaian teaching; but when the conversion to Islam of the...
SHABBETHAI B. SOLOMON – Rabbi and scholar; lived at Rome in the second half of the thirteenth century. In the controversy regarding the study of philosophy in general, and of Maimonides' "Moreh Nebukim" in particular, which arose between Hillel b....
SHABBETHAI ẒEBI B. MORDECAI – Pseudo-Messiah and cabalist; founder of the Shabbethaian sect; born on the Ninth of Ab (July 23, 1626) at Smyrna; died, according to some, on the Day of Atonement (Sept. 30), 1676, at Duleigno, a small town in Albania. He was of...
SHABU'OT – See Festivals; Pentecost.
SHADCHAN – Marriage-broker. The verb "shadak" ("meshaddekin"), referring to the arrangements which two heads of families made between themselves for the marriage of their children, was used in Talmudical times (Shab. 150a). But the...
SHADDAI – See Names of God.
SHADRACH – Name given by the chief of the eunuchs to Hananiah (Dan. i. 7 et passim). Various theories as to its etymology have been put forward, of which the most likely (Delitzsch, "Liber Daniel," xii.) seems to be that the name is the...
SHAḤAR ABAḲḲSHKA – Morning hymn written about 1050 by Solomon ibn Gabirol (Zunz, "Literaturgesch." p. 188), whose name appears in an acrostic. It is quoted in the prayer-book of the Sephardim, and particularly among the "supplications" following...
SHAKNA, SHALOM – Polish Talmudist; born about 1510; died at Lublin Oct. 29, 1558. He was a pupil of Jacob Pollak, founder of the method of Talmudic study known as the Pilpul. By the year 1528 he had already become famous as a teacher, and...
SHALAL (SHOLAL), ISAAC HA-KOHEN – Head ("nagid") of the community of Cairo, Egypt, in succession to his uncle Nathan ha-Kohen Shalal; died, according to Grätz ("Gesch." 3d ed., ix. 496), at Jerusalem 1525. The appointment of "dayyanim" being one of his...
SHALET (SHOLENT) – See Cookery in Eastern Europe.
SHALKOVICH, ABRAHAM LEIB – See Ben-Avigdor.
SHALLUM – Biblical Data: 1. King of Israel who dethroned Zechariah, the last of Jehu's dynasty, and succeeded him. He was in turn dethroned by Menahem (II Kings xv. 10-16).2. Son of Josiah, King of Judah (Jer. xxii. 11). Probably the term...
SHALMANESER – King of Assyria from 727 to 722 B.C.; successor, and possibly son, of Tiglath-pileser III. According to II Kings xvii. 3-6, he attacked Hoshea, King of Israel, and made him his vassal. Later Hoshea conspired with So (probably...
SHALOM, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC BEN JUDAH BEN SAMUEL – Italian scholar and theologian; died in 1492. In his "Neweh Shalom" (1574) he places Scriptural and Talmudic knowledge far above philosophy, although he admits that investigation is not only permissible, but necessary for the...
SHALOM BEN JOSEPH SHABBEZI (Salim al-Shibzi) – Yemenite poet and cabalist; flourished toward the end of the seventeenth century at Ṭa'iz, a city ten days' journey south of Sanaa. He was a weaver by trade, but occupied himself also with cabalistic literature, especially the...
SHALOM OF VIENNA – Austrian rabbi; lived at Wiener-Neustadt in the second half of the fourteenth century. He was distinguished for Talmudic learning, and was the first to receive the title "Morenu." Like his colleagues Meïr ha-Levi and Abraham...
SHAMGAR – Biblical Data: One of the Judges; son of Anath. He smote 600 Philistines with an ox-goad and saved Israel (Judges iii. 31). During his judgeship so unsettled were the times that "the highways were unoccupied, and the travelers...
SHAMḤAZAI – Name of a fallen angel. According to Targ. pseudo-Jonathan on Gen. vi. 4, "nefilim" (A. V. "giants") denotes the two angels Shamḥazai and his companion Uzzael orAzael, who fell from heaven and dwelt on earth "in those days,"...
SHAMIR – Term designating a hard stone in the Targums, but in the Bible thrice (Jer. xvii. 1; Ezek. iii. 9; Zech. vii. 12) connoting Adamant, a substance harder than any stone and hence used as a stylus (Löw, "Graphische Requisiten." i....