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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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SHAMMAI – Scholar of the first century B.C. He was the most eminent contemporary and the halakic opponent of Hillel, and is almost invariably mentioned along with him. After Menahem the Essene had resigned the office of vice-president...
SHAMMAITES – See Bet Hillel and Bet Shammai.
SHAMMASH – Communal and synagogal officer whose duties to some extent correspond with those of the verger and beadle. In Talmudical times he was called "ḥazzan"; and then it was also a part of his duties to assist in reciting some of the...
SHANGHAI – Opium Trade. Chinese city. The first Jew who arrived there was Elias David Sassoon, who, about the year 1850, opened a branch in connection with his father's Bombay house. Since that period Jews have gradually migrated from...
SHANGI – Turkish family many members of which distinguished themselves as rabbis and scholars.Astruc ben David Shangi: Rabbi at Sofia, Bulgaria; died at Jerusalem at the beginning of the seventeenth century. A halakic decision of his is...
SHAPHAN – 1. Son of Azaliah and scribe of King Josiah. He received from Hilkiah, the high priest, the book of the Law which had been found in the Temple. Shaphan was one of those sent by the king to the prophetess Huldah (II Kings xxii.;...
SHAPIRA, ISAIAH MEÏR KAHANA – Polish-German rabbi and author; born at Memel, Prussia, July 28, 1828; died at Czortkow, Galicia, Jan. 9, 1887. He is said to have been familiar at the age of thirteen with all the "sedarim" of both Talmudim and with a part of...
SHAPIRA, M. W. – Polish purveyor of spurious antiquities; born about 1830; committed suicide at Rotterdam March 11, 1884. He appears to have been converted to Christianity at an early age, and to have then gone to Palestine, where he opened a...
SHAPIRO, ARYEH LÖB B. ISAAC – Polish rabbi and grammarian; born 1701; died at Wilna April, 1761. He went to Wilna in his childhood, and married a daughter of Mordecai b. Azriel, one of its prominent citizens. His Talmudical knowledge was extensive, and he...
SHAPIRO, CONSTANTIN – Russian photographer and Hebrew poet; born at Grodno, Russia, 1841; died in St. Petersburg March 23, 1900. He obtained his early education in the yeshibot, but at the same time, like the other Maskilim (see Maskil) of his age,...
SHARON – Large plain of Palestine, with an average elevation of between 280 and 300 feet above sea-level; bounded by Mount Carmel on the north, Jaffa on the south, the mountains of Gilboa on the east, and the Mediterranean Sea on the...
SHATZKES, MOSES AARON – Russian Hebrew author; born at Karlin 1825; died at Kiev Aug. 24, 1899. He received a general as well as a Hebrew education, and he devoted himself to literature. His literary labors brought him little material benefit, however,...