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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ANTIPATER – Plots Against Aristobulus. Father of Herod I.; died 43 B.C. He was the son of Antipas, a convert to Judaism, who was governor of Idumæa under the reigns of Alexander Jannæus and his queen dowager Alexandra, and rendered himself...
ANTIPATER – Eldest son of Herod the Great and of the Idumean Doris, who soon after Antipater's birth was discarded by her husband; born about 38 B.C.; executed 4 B.C. He was first brought up in obscurity and penury; but Pheroras and Salome,...
ANTIPATER, SON OF JASON – See Jonathan the Hasmonean.
ANTIPATRIS – City founded about the year 10 B.C. by Herod the Great in the plain of Kefar Saba. From a passage in Josephus it appears that there had been, in the time of Alexander Jannæus, a town on this site called Kefar Saba ("old...
ANTIPHONY – See Choir.
ANTI-SEMITISM – A modern word expressing antagonism to the political and social equality of Jews.The term "Anti-Semitism" has its origin in the ethnological theory that the Jews, as Semites, are entirely different from the Aryan, or...
ANTI-SHABBETHIANS – See Shabbethai Ẓebi.
ANTISLAVERY MOVEMENT IN AMERICA – Jewish Slaveholders. The institution of negro slavery in America has been traced back to the suggestion of a pillar of the Church, Las Casas, who proposed it as a substitute for the enslavement of the American Indians, since the...
ANTISLAVERY MOVEMENT AND THE JEWS – The movement against slavery is one of the most important efforts in the development of civilization; and the relation of the Jews to this subject merits special attention.J. K. Ingram, in his valuable work on the "History of...
ANTI-TALMUDISTS – See Frankists, Karaites.
ANTOINE, NICOLAS – Refused Admission to Judaism. French-Christian theologian who became converted to Judaism; born of Catholic parents in 1602 or 1603 at Briey, a small town of Lorraine; suffered martyrdom at the stake in Geneva, April 20, 1632....
ANTOKOLSKI, MARK MATVEYEVICH – Russian sculptor; born in Wilna in 1842. As a young child he displayed a talent for art, and after a short term in the ḥeder (Hebrew school) applied himself to the study of carving in wood. Artistic carvings in wood executed by...
ANTOLI – See Anatoli.
ANTON, SANCHEZ – See Sanchez Antonio.
ANTON, CARL – Author; born in Mitau (Courland), of Jewish parentage; lived in the eighteenth century. He claimed descent from Ḥayyim Vital Calabrese. After studying for seven years at Prague under Jonathan Eibenschütz, Anton traveḷed in the...
ANTON DE MORTORO ROPERO – See Ropero, Anton de Mortoro.
ANTONIA – The name given by Herod the Great to a fortress on the north side of the Temple at Jerusalem. It formed a projection on the northwest, so that it was not till it was destroyed that the Temple area became a square (Josephus, "B....
ANTONIA – Ruins of the Antonia Fortress, Jerusalem.(From Stade, "Geschichte Israels.")The younger daughter of the triumvir Mark Antony and sister-in-law of Tiberius. She was on friendly terms with Berenice (the daughter of Salome) and...
ANTONIA, PRINCESS OF WÜRTEMBERG – A Christian Hebraist and cabalistic scholar, born in the first half of the seventeenth century; died 1679. One of the effects of the Reformation in Germany was an increased interest in the Hebrew language among Christian...
ANTONINUS IN THE TALMUD – A Roman emperor, and the hero of Jewish legends that recount wonderful things about his attitude toward Jews and Judaism, and more particularly concerning his friendship with Rabbi. He is called "the father of " (Severus) by the...
ANTONINUS PIUS (Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus) – Roman emperor; born in the year 86; died in 161; ruled from 138 until his death. The reign of this just and humane emperor came like a blessing to the Jews, particularly to those of Palestine. The religious persecutions of...
ANTONIO, DIOGO – A physician who lived in Lisbon in the first half of the sixteenth century. In 1539 he succeeded Duarte de Paz as representative of the Portuguese Maranos at Rome, charged with the mission of endeavoring to prevent, or at least...
ANTONIO, DOM – Prior of Crato, pretender to the throne of Portugal; died 1595. He was a natural son of Dom Luis, brother of King Henry of Portugal, and of the converted Jewess Iolanthe, Henry's mistress, but was legitimated by his father. The...
ANTONIO, HECTOR – Brother of Diogo Antonio. He was the representative of the Portuguese Maranos in Rome about the middle of the sixteenth century, commissioned to adjust the finances of his brother, and to convey to Pope Paul III. a complaint...
ANTONIO, JOSÉ DA SILVA – See Silva, Antonio, José da.