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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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BARAITA OF R. ELIEZER – The customary name for the PirḲe R. Eliezer among the older scholars, as Rashi and in the 'Aruk. Some recent scholars follow their example in using this title.J. Sr. L. G.
BARAITA OF R. ELIEZER – See Baraita of the Thirty-two Rules.
BARAITA ON THE ERECTION OF THE TABERNACLE – A Baraita cited several times by Hai Gaon, by Nathan ben Jehiel in the 'Aruk, as well as in Rashi, Yalḳut, and Maimonides. Rashi calls it a Mishnah. It treats in fourteen sections (in the Munich MS., sections i. and ii....
BARAITA OF THE FORTY-NINE RULES – Rashi, the Tosafists, Abraham ibn Ezra, Yalḳut, and Asher ben Jehiel mention a work, "Baraita of the Forty-nine Rules," and make citations from it (thus, Rashi, ed. Berliner, on Ex. xxvi. 5; Yalḳ., Gen. 61, calls it "Midrash";...
BARAITA ON THE HEAVENLY THRONE – See Ma'ase Merkabah.
BARAITA OF R. ISHMAEL – A Baraita which explains the thirteen rules of R. Ishmael, and their application, by means of illustrations from the Bible. The name is inaccurately given also to the first part of the Baraita, which only enumerates the thirteen...
BARAITA OF R. JOSE – Name given by some of the old scholars to the Seder 'Olam Rabbah. Concerning another Baraita of the same name, see Brüll, "Jahrbücher," v. 99.J. Sr. L. G.
BARAITA OF JOSEPH B. UZZIEL – A cabalistic Baraita, several times mentioned by Recanati. It is in manuscript form at Oxford, and is a commentary to the Sefer Yeẓirah (compare Joseph b. Uzziel).J. Jr. L. G.
BARAITA OF JOSHUA B. LEVI – See "Revelation of Joshua b. Levi," in article Apocalyptic Literature, Neo-Hebraic, § 5.
BARAITA ON THE MYSTERY OF THE CALCULATION OF THE CALENDAR – A Baraita cited in the Talmud (R. H. 20b). Since special care was taken to keep it secret, it has not been preserved; but it is probable that the Baraita of Samuel incorporated a considerable portion of it. The Talmud citation...
BARAITA DE-NIDDAH – This Baraita, expressly mentioned by Naḥmanides, and probably known to the Geonim and the German-French Talmudists of the thirteenth century, was until recently supposed to be lost. It was not published until 1890, when it was...
BARAITA OF R. PHINEHAS B. JAIR – 1. See Midrash Tadshe.2. A Baraita printed by Grünhut, in "Sefer ha-Liḳḳuṭim," ii. 20b-21a. It contains the sayings of R. Phinehas b. Jair and R. Eliezer ha-Gadol on the Messianic times and on the various degrees of piety given...
BARAITA ON SALVATION – A haggadic Baraita, which Schönblum (Lemberg, 1877) published for the first time in the collection "Sheloshah Sefarim Niftaḥim." It enumerates twenty-four sins which delay the [Messianic] salvation and prolong "the end"...
BARAITA OF SAMUEL – A Baraita of Samuel was known to Jewish scholars from Shabbethai Donolo in the tenth century to Simon Duran in the fifteenth century; and citations from it were made by them. It was considered as lost until quite recently, when...
BARAITA DE-SIFRE – See Sifre, Zuṭṭa.
BARAITA OF THE THIRTY-TWO RULES – A Baraita giving the thirty-two hermeneutic rules according to which the Bible is interpreted. Abul-Walid ibn Janaḥ is the oldest authority who drew upon this Baraita, but he did not mention it by name. Rashi makes frequent use...
BARAK – Biblical Data: A warrior; the son of Abinoam mentioned in Judges iv. 6, v. 12, as the most important ally of Deborah in the struggle against the Canaanites. Deborah summoned Barak, the son of Abinoam, from his home at Kedesh in...
BARASCH, JULIUS – Rumanian author and physician; born at Brody, Galicia, 1815; died at Bucharest, Rumania, March 31, 1863. His early education included Talmudic disciplines; but having been married against his own desire at the age of sixteen,...
BARASSA, DIEGO – Spanish physician and Marano, who openly avowed himself a Jew at Amsterdam about 1640. He was conversant with astronomy, medicine, and botany, and was acquainted with Arabic and Syriac. Manasseh b. Israel dedicated to him the...
BARATIER, JEAN PHILIPPE – Christian translator of Benjamin of Tudela's travels; born at Schwabach, Bavaria, in 1721; died in 1740. He was only thirteen years old when he published his first work, "Voyages de Rabbi Benjamin Fils de Jona de Tudèle....
BARATZ, HERMAN (HIRSCH) – Russian lawyer and censor of Hebrew books; born at Dubno 1835; graduated from the Rabbinical School of Jitomir in 1859, and from the University of Kiev in 1869. In 1871 he was appointed by the governor-general of Kiev censor of...
BARBADOS – First Settlement of Jews. Island of the British West Indies in the Windward Group; colonized in 1625. It is probable that Jews were among the earliest settlers on this island. The statement is made by Sir Robert H. Schomburgk...
BARBARY STATES – A region comprising the northwest of Africa from the Mediterranean to the Sahara, including Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli. The words "Barbaria" ( ) and "Barbarians" ( ) are found in the Midrash; in Gen. R. lx. the...
BARBASTRO, BARBASTE – A city of Aragon, containing a Jewish community with special privileges that were confirmed by successive kings from time to time (as late as 1336). In 1257, this community was so poor that the king found it necessary to reduce...
BARBER, IDA – German authoress; born at Berlin July 9, 1842. She began her literary career when quite young, and published the following novels either in book form or as serials in magazines: (1) "Gebrochene Herzen"; (2) "Russische...