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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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BAPUGEE, HASKEL (EZEKIEL) – One of the Beni Israelites of Bombay, subedar-major in the Indian native army; died Feb. 14, 1878, and was buried with military honors by special order of the officer commanding. He held the rank of sirdar bahadur of the 12th...
BAR – Aramaic equivalent of Hebrew Ben, "a son" or "son of."
BAR – Town in the district of Mohilev, province of Podolia, Russia, on the River Rov, affluent of the Bug; with a Jewish population of 8,000, of a total population of 10,614 (1897). The Jewish community of Bar is one of the oldest of...
BAR ANINA – Palestinian scholar of the end of the fourth century; lived in Bethlehem, where he was the teacher of the church father Jerome. The Talmudic and Midrashic literature mentions many halakists and haggadists whose fathers were...
BAR COCHBA, BAR COCHBAH – See Bar Kokba.
BAR DALA, BARDALA, BAR DALIA, BARDALIA – A place near Lydda, which once harbored a rabbinic seat of learning (B. M. 10a et seq.; see Rabbinowicz, "Diḳduḳe Soferim," ad loc.; Beẓah 14a, see Rabbinowicz, ib.; Yer. 'Er. vi. 24a; Yer. Kil. i. 27a; Yer. Sheb. ii. 33d). It...
BAR ELASHA – See Ben Elasah.
BAR GIORA, SIMON – Jewish leader in the revolt against Rome; born about the year 50, at Gerasa. To judge from his name he was the son of a proselyte. The date of his birth is determined by the fact that he wasvery young at the time of the war with...
BAR HEBRÆUS – See Gregory bar Hebræus.
BAR JESUS – A Jewish magician described in Acts xiii. 6-11 as a "sorcerer, a false prophet," who, when Paul and Barnabas came to Cyprus, was found in the company of Sergius Paulus, the Roman proconsul. He also bore the title of "Elymas" (=...
BAR ḲAPPARA – Palestinian scholar of the beginning of the third century, occupying an intermediate position between tanna and amora. His real and complete name was Eleazar (there seems to be no ground for the form "Eliezer") ben Eleazar...
BAR KOKBA AND BAR KOKBA WAR – War of Quietus. The insurrection of the Jews of Cyrene, Cyprus, and Egypt in the last years of the emperor Trajan had not been entirely suppressed when Hadrian assumed the reins of government in 118. The seat of war was...
BAR KOZIBA – See Bar Kokba.
BAR MIẒWAH – Religious Maturity. Hebrew term applied to a boy on completing his thirteenth year, who has then reached the age of religious duty and responsibility. The name "Bar Miẓwah" occurs in B. M. 96a, where it is applied to every grown...
BAR SHALMON – Legendary son-in-law of Ashmedai, king of the demons. Bar Shalmon, the scholarly and pious son of a rich merchant who had accumulated great wealth through maritime ventures, promised his father under oath, when the latter was on...
BAR YOKNI – A gigantic bird mentioned several times in the Talmud. An authority at the beginning of the third century, in relating a number of wonders, says that this bird was so large that once one of its eggs dropping from a height...
BARABAS – The principal character in Christopher Marlowe's "The Rich Jew of Malta," first produced at the Rose Theater, Bankside, London, in 1591, and entered in the Stationers' Books May 17, 1594. The rôle of Barabas was created by...
BARABBAS – Prisoner of the Romans released by the procurator Pontius Pilate. The reason for his incarceration is given differently in various books of the New Testament. In Matt. xxvii. 16, he is called "a notable prisoner"; according to...
BARACH, M – See Maerzroth.
BARACH, ROSA – Austrian authoress and educator; born at Neu-Rausnitz, Moravia, May 15, 1841. Educated at her native place and at Vienna, she settled in the latter city, where she founded a high school for girls. In 1882 she made a professional...
BARAFFAEL (BARUFFALL), ISAAC – Italian officer and communal worker; lived in Rome at the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth. On the occupation of Rome by the French, Baraffael was appointed major of the national forces on March...
BARAITA – Definition. An Aramaic word designating a tannaite tradition not incorporated in the Mishnah; later it was applied also to collections of such traditions ("Barayata," plural of Baraita). The Aramaic form is , which in an old...
BARAITA ON THE (TREATISE) ABOT – A Baraita consisting of eleven paragraphs on the excellences of the Torah and on the right way to become acquainted with it. This Baraita claims to be a supplement to the treatise Abot, having as a superscription the words: "The...
BARAITA OF R. ADA – A Baraita on the calendar. The only one who speaks of such a Baraita is Abraham b. Ḥiyya ha-Nassi ("Sefer ha-'Ibbur," iii. 4), to whom probably are to be ascribed the words on the Baraita which occur in the commentary by Obadiah...
BARAITA ON THE CREATION – 1. See Ma'aseh Bereshit.2. Under the title , L. Goldschmidt published a work (Strasburg, 1894) which he gave out to be an Aramaic apocryphon. But A. Epstein ("Monatsschrift," xxxviii. 479) has shown that it is a spurious work by...