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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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BODEḲ – See Bediḳah.
BODEK, HERMAN – Galician Hebraist; born in Brody Sept. 27, 1820; died at Leipsic Aug. 19, 1880. He was descended from a highly respected family, and was the son-in-law of S. L. Rapoport. For a long time he lived in Leipsic, where he was...
BODEK, JACOB, OF LEMBERG – Galician Hebraist; died at Lemberg 1856. He published "Ha-Ro'eh v-Mebaḳḳer Sifre Meḥabre Zemanenu" (Spectator and Critic of Contemporary Works), which contains long articles from his own pen, from that of his brother-in-law, A....
BODENHEIMER, LEVI – Consistorial rabbi at Krefeld, in the Rhine province; born Dec. 13, 1807, at Carlsruhe; died Aug. 25, 1867, at Krefeld. He occupied the position of rabbi at Hildesheim in 1837. Bodenheimer published: (1) "Das Testament Unter...
BODENSCHATZ, JOHANN CHRISTIAN GEORG – German Protestant theologian; born at Hof, Germany, May 25, 1717; died Oct. 4, 1797, at Baiersdorf near Erlangen. In his early education at the gymnasium of Gera he became interested in Oriental and Biblical subjects through his...
BODENSEE – See Constance, Lake of.
BODENSTEIN, JULIUS – German landscape-painter; born in Berlin Aug. 4, 1847. He studied at the Berlin Academy under Schütze and Hermann Schnee, and in 1873 went to Munich, where he became a pupil of Ad. Lier. He is prominent as a painter of subjects...
BODLEIAN LIBRARY – The well-known University Library at Oxford, England. The building which at present forms the reading-room of the Bodleian Library was begun in 1444 by Humfrey, duke of Gloucester, and received continual accessions of books. Its...
BODO – Bishop and chaplain of Emperor Louis the Pious. After a dissolute life at court, he made (838) a pilgrimage to Rome, was converted to Judaism, assuming the name of Eleazar, and married a Jewess. He then went into military...
BODY IN JEWISH THEOLOGY – In Hebrew the idea of "body" is expressed by the term "basar" (Assyrian, "bishru"), which, commonly translated "flesh," originally denoted blood-relation, clan (see Gen. ii. 23, 24), the physical appearance being regarded as the...
BOESCHENSTAIN, JOHANNES – German Hebraist; born at Eslingen in 1472; said to have been of Jewish parentage, this statement, however, being denied by himself. He was among the earliest to revive the study of Hebrew in Germany, having been a pupil of Moses...
BOETHUSIANS – Origin of Name. A Jewish sect closely related to, if not a development of, the Sadducees. The origin of this schism is recounted as follows by the Midrash: Antigonus of Soko having taught the maxim, "Be not like the servants who...
BOGNAR, FREDERIKE – German actress; born at Gotha Feb. 16, 1840. Her father was a singer, and Frederike was destined for a musical career. After appearing a few times in children's parts in Budapest, she was sent to Munich to study music under Mme....
BOGOLYUBSKI, ANDREI – First grand duke of Russia (1169-74). He conquered Kiev after the death of Vladimir Monomakh (1169), but selected the northern city of Vladimir as the capital of the kingdom. At that time Kiev was an important commercial center...
BOGROV, GRIGORI ISAACOVICH – Russian writer; born March 13, 1825, in Poltava; died May 10, 1885, at Derevki, government of Minsk. He received his early education from his father, who was a Hebrew scholar and who left in manuscript a Hebrew work on...
BOGUSLAV – Town in the government of Kiev, Russia. It is mentioned in official documents dated 1195. Nothing is known of the date of the Jewish settlement there. Russian and Polish historians record that Boguslav was one of the cities...
BOHEMIA – Crown land in the northernmost part of the Austro-Hungarian empire. The history of the first settlement of Jews in Bohemia is wrapped in legend. The oldest Jewish sources designate Bohemia as "Ereẓ Kena'an," that is, "Slavonia"...
BÖHM, MOSES – German physician; flourished in the middle of the eighteenth century. In 1740 he was engaged by the Jewish community of Halberstadt to attend to the medical needs of its poor members; and his salary, 175 thalers per annum, was...
BÖHMER, ISRAEL B. JOSEPH – Russian Neo-Hebraist and lexicographer; born about 1820; died in Slutzk, government of Minsk, April 4, 1860. His father, R. Joseph Böhmer (1796-1864), was a prominent Talmudical authority, one of the firstgraduates from the...
BÖHMER (V03p292001.jpg), JOSEPH B. MEÏR – Lithuanian rabbi and Talmudist; born at Skudy in 1796; died May 7, 1864, at Slutsk. One of the most eminent pupils of R. Ḥayyim of Volozhin, Böhmer attained such a reputation as Talmudist that legal questions were sent to him...
BOIL – The rendering, in the English versions of the Scriptures, of the Hebrew word "sheḥin," which comes from a root meaning "to warm," and indicates an inflamed spot. In the Bible it is used to describe two distinct forms of disease,...
BOJANOWO – A town in the district of Ravditsch, province of Posen, Germany. A Jewish community of one hundred and forty-four souls dwelt in Bojanowo as early as 1793. They were under the protection of the Boyanowskis, the lords of the...
BOKHARA – Capital of the khanate of the same name in Central Asia; a principal seat of Islam and, with Samarcand, a center of Mohammedan culture in Central Asia since early times. The city probably had a Jewish population even at the...
BOLAFFIO, LEONE – Italian jurist; born at Padua July 5, 1848. He was educated at Padua; attended the public schools, the Talmudic college—where S. D. Luzzatto was his teacher—and the University of Padua. Bolaffio afterward practised law at Venice...
BOLAFFIO, LUIGI FILIPPO – Italian journalist and publisher; born in Venice 1846, died at Milan 1901. While he was still a youth his parents moved to Genoa, and there Bolaffio founded "La Favilla," a literary magazine. He returned to Venice in 1866 and...