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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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BOOK-TRADE – The trade in books was carried on by Jews long before the invention of printing. A catalogue of a bookseller of the twelfth century was unearthed a few years ago in the Fostat Genizah ("Jew. Quart. Rev." xiii. 52). The poet...
BOOKBINDERS – See Binding.
BOOT – See Shoe.
BOOTH – A rendering, in the English versions of the Bible, of the Hebrew word "sukkah"; also occasionally translated "pavilion" or "cottage." The ordinary habitation of the nomad is the tent, a rough textile fabric of goat's hair,...
BOOTHS – See Tabernacle.
BOOTY – See War.
BOPPARD, GERMANY – See Blood Accusation.
BORCHARD, MARC – German physician and author; born in Mecklenburg, 1808; died at Paris June 21, 1872. He graduated as M. D. at Halle, later going to France, where he became hospital and forensic physician at Bordeaux. In that city he was a...
BORCHARDT, BRUNO – German physicist and author; born at Bromberg Nov. 17, 1859. Educated at Berlin, where he graduated as Ph.D., he was appointed high-school teacher; but on account of his socialistic convictions was compelled to resign his...
BORCHARDT, FELIX – German painter; born in Berlin March 7, 1857; studied at the Berlin Academy and with Max Michael; traveled extensively in Italy, France, Holland, and Spain, remaining five years in Spain. He is now (1902) a resident of Dresden...
BORCHARDT, KARL WILHELM – German mathematician; born Feb. 22, 1817, at Berlin; died there June 27, 1880. He studied from 1839 to 1843 at Königsberg, where Jacobi exerted a great influence on him. He passed the winter of 1846-47 at Paris, where he...
BORDEAUX – In medieval times capital of Guienne; to-day, of the department of La Gironde, France. It derives its name from Bourdelois, the district in which it is situated.According to a legend, the Jews settled at Bordeaux shortly after...
BORDERS – Ornamental designs surrounding printed pages. The first ornaments for title-pages consisted of arabesque borders with white figures. They are found in books printed at Lisbon, 1489-92, the plates of which, together with Eliezer...
BOREK – Soncino Border.(From the title-page of "Sefer Yehoshua," printed by Soncino. In the collection of Hon. Mayer Sulzberger.)Town in the district of Koschmin, province of Posen, Germany. So long as the city was under the domination...
BORERIM – Name of electors of a congregation, and applied particularly to the five distinguished representatives of the community in the old "kahals" (governing boards) of the Jews in Poland and Lithuania. The borerim were chosen by nine...
BORGER – Cabalist; lived at Zülz, Prussia, in the seventeenth century; corrector of the press in the printing-house of Shabbethai Bass at Dyhernfurth. He published (Amsterdam, 1688), with additions of his own, the cabalistic commentaries...
BORIS, MOSES – French colonel; born in the department of Meurthe in 1808; died in Paris June 13, 1884. At the age of twenty-six he entered the military school of Saint-Cyr, and upon his graduation was appointed tutor, gradually rising to the...
BORISOV – Town and district in the government of Minsk, Russia; situated on a peninsula on the left bank of the Beresina, about fifty miles from the capital. The Jewish population (1900) of the town was over 10,000 in a total of 18,348;...
BORISPOL – A village in the district of Pereyaslav, government of Poltawa. Its population of 10,000 embraces about 1,000 Jews. Of the latter, 157 are artisans. Instruction in the Talmud Torah is imparted to 114 Jewish children, the...
BORKUM, KALMAN BEN PHINEAS SELIGMAN – Court Jew of Duke Peter Biron of Courland; born in the middle of the eighteenth century; died at Mitau in 1828, on the same day that his brother Simson died. Owing to the influence of the Borkum brothers, Jews were permitted to...
BORN, GUSTAV JACOB – German histologist and medical author; born at Kempen, province of Posen, Prussia, April 22, 1851. He received his education first at the gymnasium of Görlitz, Prussian Silesia—where his father practised as a physician and held...
BÖRNE, KARL LUDWIG – German political and literary writer; born May 6, 1786, at Frankfort-on-the-Main; died in Paris Feb. 12, 1837. The family name was Baruch, and he received the name of Loeb, both of which he afterward changed. Both his...
BORNSTEIN, ARTHUR – German author; born at Breslau March 23, 1867; studied at Breslau, Berlin, and Bern; and passed the state examination in Berlin in 1888. He adopted the profession of dental surgery, but devoted himself as well to literature. A...
BORNSTEIN, PAUL – German author; born in Berlin April 8, 1868; educated in and graduated from the university in that city, receiving the degree of doctor of philosophy. He has since lived in the German capital. His first published work was the...